Date post: 2017-11-08 00:24
The Bluegrass State aims to become the first state to implement Medicaid work requirements. But it’s not the only one moving in that direction.
Habermas' Critical Theory comprises, at least centrally, his ‘critique of functionalist reason’, which is a reworking of his predecessors’ critique of instrumental reason. The central thesis of the critique of functionalist reason is that the system has colonized the lifeworld. In order to understand the thesis, one needs to understand not only the notions of system, lifeworld, and colonization but also the notion of communicative action and – this being the most philosophical notion of the ensemble – the notion of communicative rationality.
Plantinga has argued for a “reformed epistemology,” claiming that belief in God is a “basic belief,” and can be rational and justified without need for argument. In regards to evolution, Plantinga supports the notion of intelligent design, but he holds a nuanced view, arguing that although he is opposed to the idea of “unguided” evolution (meaning that things evolved entirely on their own accord) on theological grounds, he supports the idea that evolution could be “guided” by intelligent design, and so, by God, finding evolution and intelligent design to be compatible.
How far does Habermas warrant the normativity, which is to say, show that colonization is bad? It is hard to be in favour of self-undermining societies. But (some degree of?) alienation might be thought a price worth paying for certain achievements and not everyone advocates democracy (or at least the same degree or type of it). But Habermas does have the following argument for the badness of colonization. There is ‘a normative content’ within language itself, in that ‘[r]eaching understanding is the inherent telos of human speech’ and/but a colonized lifeworld, which by definition is not a domain of communicative action, thwarts that telos. (Habermas 6997a: 659 and Habermas 6989: 787 respectively.)
Korsgaard argues that the normativity of moral obligation is self-imposed, and is justified through our establishing a kind of self-authority through our autonomy. If we take anything to be of value, then, in Korsgaard’s view, we have to acknowledge that we have moral obligations, implied through us finding value in those things, which we must maintain in order to be consistent with our autonomy, the source of our moral obligation. Korsgaard has been influential in defending and reestablishing the significance of the Kantian approach in contemporary moral philosophy.
Finally, extensive data about market structures and consumer demand can enable firms to exert power over their suppliers or contractual partners, driving down costs and therefore wages and conditions through their supply chains. Walmart has long leveraged its unparalleled market data to estimate the lowest possible price suppliers will accept for goods, putting downward pressure on their profits and their workers&rsquo wages. Amazon does the same today, and franchisors such as McDonald&rsquo s set prices and detailed product specifications for their franchisees.
Contemporary philosophers are enormously influential right now. Take Princeton’s Peter Singer and his work on animal ethics. How society sees its responsibilities to nonhuman others owes much to Singer. Though usually not household names, contemporary philosophers have radically altered the way we think about all sorts of things from the nature of God to the role of race in democracy.
Technological development is nevertheless altering the political economy of labor markets in profound ways. As we can see in the truck driver example, many firms are deploying information technologies to erode workers&rsquo conditions and bargaining power without displacing them.
The idea that philosophy is the handmaiden of theology, earlier propounded by the Hellenistic thinker Philo of Alexandria , is most associated with the medieval age and particularly with Aquinas. Aquinas resumed the project of synthesizing Christianity with Greek philosophy - a project that had been pursued already by various thinkers including Augustine , Anselm , and Boethius. (Boethius was a politician inspired by philosophy – but the politics ended badly for him. In those respects he resembles the earlier Seneca. And, like Seneca, Boethius wrote of the consolations of philosophy.)
Consider the life of a truck driver forty years ago versus today. In 6976 long-haul truck drivers had a powerful, if flawed, union in the Teamsters and enjoyed middle-class wages and excellent benefits. They also had a remarkable degree of autonomy, giving the job a cowboy or outlaw image. Drivers had to track their hours carefully, of course, and submit to weigh stations and other inspections of their trucks. But dispatchers could not reach them while they were on the road, since CB radios have limited range. Truckers would call in from pay phones, if they wanted.