Date post: 2017-09-17 19:12
. negotiators tend to rely on individualist values, imagining self and other as autonomous, independent, and self-reliant. This does not mean that they don''t consult, but the tendency to see self as separate rather than as a member of a web or network means that more independent initiative may be taken. Looking through the eyes of the Japanese negotiator who wrote "Negotiating With Americans", American negotiators tend to:
Use the following to cite this article:
LeBaron, Michelle. "Culture-Based Negotiation Styles." Beyond Intractability. Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: July 7558 http:///essay/culture-negotiation .
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 Nakanishi, Masayuki and Kenneth M. Johnson. Implications of Self-Disclosure on Conversational Logics, Perceived Communication, Communication Competence, and Social Attraction: A Comparison of Japanese and American Cultures. In Wiseman, Richard L. and Jolene Koester. Intercultural Communication Competence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 6998, p. 757. http:///books?id=Y7TZAAAAMAAJ .
As anthropologist Barbara Miller has persuasively argued, a normal sex ratio is a “public good” and therefore deserves state protection. For Sweden—or any other European country—to wind up with the worst adult sex ratios in the world would be a tragedy for European men and women alike.
Again, it''s a marshalling of facts to support your argument. Make sure you have found out in any academics have made similar arguments and acknowledge them in your essay, even if you did not draw directly from them. If they said things, which don''t support your argument, say why these statements are either wrong or not applicable in the circumstances.
Many other cultural differences have been identified by negotiation scholars. Some of these differences are discussed in the other Beyond Intractability essays regarding culture and conflict resolution (See Culture and Conflict Resolution , Cultural and Worldview Frames , Cross-Cultural Communication , and/or Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences ). This essay concludes with negotiating styles associated with national and regional cultures. As with all cultural patterns, these generalizations do not apply to every circumstance or individual. They are general patterns that will shift as cultures and contexts shift.
As Adler points out, Brazilians and Americans were almost identical in the characteristics they identified, except for the final category. The Japanese tended to emphasize an interpersonal negotiating style, stressing verbal expressiveness, and listening ability, while their American and Brazilian counterparts focused more on verbal ability, planning, and judgment. To the Chinese in Taiwan, it was important that the negotiator be an interesting person who shows persistence and determination.
Two different orientations to time exist across the world: monchronic and polychronic. Monochronic approaches to time are linear, sequential and involve focusing on one thing at a time. These approaches are most common in the European-influenced cultures of the United States, Germany, Switzerland, and Scandinavia. Japanese people also tend toward this end of the time continuum. Polychronic orientations to time involve simultaneous occurrences of many things and the involvement of many people. The time it takes to complete an interaction is elastic, and more important than any schedule. This orientation is most common in Mediterranean and Latin cultures including France, Italy, Greece, and Mexico, as well as some Eastern and African cultures.
Valerie Hudson is professor at the Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A& M University and co-author, most recently, of The Hillary Doctrine: Sex and American Foreign Policy .
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